Tourism can be viewed from various perspectives where there is no uniform perspective. One of them is that raised by E. Guyer Freuler in Yoeti (1996: 115), which states:
Tourism in the modern sense is a phenomenon of the present era which is based on the need for health and changing of air, a conscious assessment and growing (love) to the beauty of nature and in particular is due to the increasing association of various nations and classes of human society as a result of the development of commerce, industry, commerce and the improvement of means of transportation.
Tourism is a trip that is carried out for a while being held from one place to another, with the intention not to try (business) or to make a living in the place visited, but merely to enjoy the trip for sightseeing and recreation or to fulfill diverse desires. (Yoeti, 1996: 118) Based on the above understanding, it can be said that people who travel will need a variety of goods and services since they go from their original place to their destination and return to their original place.
The emergence of these goods and services is due to recreational activities carried out by tourists who are far from where they live. In this case they need transportation, accommodation, catering, entertainment, and other services. So, the tourism industry is the overall service received by tourists, starting to leave their homes (from tourists) to the destination (tourist destination) and return to their home regions. Tourism is said to be an industry, because in it there are various activities that can produce products in the form of goods and services. However, the tourism industry is not like the industry in general, so the tourism industry is called a smokeless industry.
The above description is in line with the concept of the tourism industry put forward by Yoeti (1996: 153) which states: "The tourism industry is a collection of various kinds of companies that jointly produce goods and services (goods and services) needed tourists in particular and travelers in general, during their journey ". Based on some of the definitions above, it can be said that the tourism industry is a collection of various companies which together produce goods or services needed by tourists and travelers during their travels.
In general, Tourism is a trip carried out by someone within a certain period of time from one place to another by planning ahead, the purpose is for recreation or for an interest so that his desires can be fulfilled or tourism can also be interpreted as a trip from one place to another to recreation then return to its original place.
etymological review, the term tourism comes from the Sanskrit language which consists of two syllables namely "pari" and "tourism". Pari means repeatedly or repeatedly, while tourism means travel or traveling. So tourism means a trip that is done repeatedly or repeatedly (Musanef, 1996: 8).
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- E. Guyer Freuler, Yoeti (1996: 115)
Tourism in the modern sense is a phenomenon of the present era which is based on the need for health and changing air, a conscious assessment and growing (love) of the beauty of nature and in particular is caused by increased association various peoples and classes of human society as a result of the development of commerce, industry, commerce and the improvement of means of transportation.
Hunziker and Krapf (Father of Tourism Science)
Tourism is a number of relationships and symptoms resulting from the residence of foreigners, provided that their stay does not cause the emergence of a place of residence and businesses that are temporary or permanent in an effort to find full employment (Musanef, 1996 : 11).
Tourism is a temporary change of place and those who make the trip receive services from companies engaged in the tourism industry (Musanef, 1996: 11).
Robert Mc. Intosh Shashi Kant Cupta
Tourism is a combination of symptoms and relationships that arise from the interaction of tourists, business, government and host communities in the process of attracting and serving these tourists and other supporters (Musanef, 1996: 11).
According to Law Number 9 of 1990 concerning Tourism Chapter I Article 1; stated that tourism is a travel activity or part of the activity which is carried out voluntarily and is temporary to enjoy tourist objects and attractions. So the understanding of tourism contains elements, namely:
- Travel activities
- The trip was wholly or partly aimed at enjoying objects and tourist attractions
According to RI Decree No. 19 of 1969, Tourism is "a service activity that utilizes natural resources and a unique environment, such as cultural products, historical heritage, beautiful natural scenery and a comfortable climate."
H. Kodhyat (1983: 4)
Tourism is a trip from one place to another, temporary, carried out individually or in groups, as an effort to find a balance or harmony and happiness with the environment in the social, cultural, natural and scientific dimensions. Meanwhile, in the opinion of James J. Spillane (1982: 20) argues that tourism is an activity of traveling with the aim of getting pleasure, looking for satisfaction, knowing something, improving health, enjoying sports or resting, fulfilling tasks, making pilgrimages and others.
According to Salah Wahab (1975: 55)
tourism, namely tourism is one of the new types of industries that are able to accelerate economic growth and provide employment, increase in income, living standards and stimulate other productive sectors. Furthermore, as a complex sector, tourism also realizes classic industries such as handicraft and souvenir industries, lodging and transportation.
E. Guyer Freuler
Tourism in the modern sense is a phenomenon of the present era which is based on the need for health and the changing of air, the conscious and fostering (love) of natural beauty and especially due to the increasing association of various nations and classes of human society as a result of development of commerce, industry, trade and improvement of transportation equipment
Tourism is a number of activities especially those that are related to economic activities that are directly related to the entry, settlement and movement of people in and out of a city or region and country.
Tourism is a trip that is carried out for a while, which is organized from one place to another, with the intention not to try or make a living in the place visited but solely to enjoy life's journey for sightseeing and recreation or to meet diverse desires
Tourism is a trip that is done many times
From the above understanding, there are several important things, namely:
- The trip was carried out for a while.
- The trip was carried out from one place to another.
- The trip, despite its form must always be associated with sightseeing and recreation, seeing and witnessing tourist attractions.
- People who make the trip do not make a living in the place or area visited and solely as a consumer in that place, by getting service (Musanef, 1996: 12).
Based on the explanation above, it can be concluded that the notion of tourism is a trip that aims for an excursion or recreation for a while and there is no purpose to make a living in the places visited.
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Form of Tourism
Now that we have learned the rationale for the concept or definition of tourism and tourists, it is also important that we also talk about forms of tourism to get a clearer picture of this industry. These forms can be divided according to the following categories:
- According to the origin of tourists
First of all it is necessary to know whether the origin of tourists from within and from abroad. If the origin of dri in the country itself means that the tourist is only moving a temporary place in the environment of his own country during his trip, then this is called domestic tourism. Meanwhile, if he is a civil lura darang called international tourism.
According to the consequences on the balance of payments
Arrival of foreign tourists is to bring foreign currency. This foreign exchange income means having a positive effect on the foreign balance of payments of a country visited by tourists, this is called active tourism. While the departure of a citizen abroad has a negative effect on the country's balance of payments, this is called passive tourism.
According to the period of time the
arrival of a tourist in a place or country is also calculated according to the length of time he lived in the place or country concerned. This raises the terms short-term tourism and long-term tourism, which depends on the provisions imposed by a country to measure the length or the length of time referred to.
to the number of tourists this difference is calculated on the number of tourists who come, whether the tourists come independently, or in a group. Then arises the term single tourism and group tourism.
According to the conveyance used
this category can be divided into air tourism, marine tourism, railroad tourism and cars, depending on whether the tourist arrives by airplane, ship, train or car.
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The organization of tourism has a purpose, namely:
- Introducing, utilizing, preserving and improving the quality of objects and tourist attractions.
- Foster a sense of love for the motherland and increase friendship between nations.
- Expanding and leveling business and employment opportunities.
- Increase national income in order to improve people's welfare and prosperity.
- Encouraging the utilization of national production (Musanef, 1996: 18).
The conclusion of the above explanation is the implementation of tourism the aim can be to preserve tourism objects, provide employment so that it can improve the welfare of the community and national income and utilize domestic production.
The purpose of developing tourism
The purpose of tourism development in Indonesia is clearly seen in the Presidential Instruction of the Republic of Indonesia Number 9 of 1969, particularly Chapter II Article 3, which states "Tourism development efforts in Indonesia are a development of" tourism industry "and are part of development and development efforts and prosperity of society and the State "(Yoeti, 1996: 151).
Based on the Presidential Instruction, it is said that the objectives of tourism development in Indonesia are:
- Increase foreign exchange income in particular and state and community income in general, expand opportunities and employment, and encourage supporting industrial activities and other side industries.
- Introducing and utilizing the natural beauty and culture of Indonesia.
- Enhancing national and international brotherhood / friendship.
So it is clearly seen that the tourism industry is developed in Indonesia in order to bring in and increase the country's foreign exchange (state revenue). All businesses related to tourism are commercial businesses with the main objective of bringing in foreign exchange. The development of tourism also aims to introduce and utilize the natural beauty and culture of Indonesia.
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Elements of Tourism
As for some of the elements that exist in the tourism industry today, including such as:
- Travel Bureau
Is a business entity that serves all the processes of tourism travel is leaving until returning home, so that the clerks get comfort during a tourism trip.
Is a place to stay temporarily or more commonly referred to as a place to stay. There are so many choices to stay while on a tour today, such as hotels, campsites, motels and others. Nowadays the place to stay is growing, especially in terms of facilities and various kinds of needs, such as eating and drinking, facilities by the body, meeting room facilities, banquet facilities and others. Because of the growing era and technology, the needs of the clerks were even more numerous and growing, so it must be provided by a company engaged in the accommodation sector.
Is an industry in tourism that provides transportation services, transportation services ranging from land, sea and air transportation. Management of this transportation service starts from the many which are managed by the private sector to the government. This service is very influential for the tourism sector, because it can make it easier to reach tourist destinations, currently there are a lot of services offered, especially at affordable prices.
Food and Restaurant Services
Is a facility in the field of food and beverages when traveling, currently the food service industry and restaurants in tourism are very profitable because in every tourist, they always need food and drinks so they must buy them and want to try various types of food and drinks in the local area. And these foods and drinks are often used as souvenirs or souvenirs to bring home.
Money Changer / Place of Exchange Money The
place to exchange foreign currencies is currently growing, foreign exchange is not only done in banks but many companies are scattered in certain places, especially in big cities that provide foreign currency exchange.
Is a show held at tourist attractions, such performances such as dance, music and others. Performances can be done traditionally or in a modern way, through the tourist attraction industry so that it can improve the excellence of the local tourist area so that it is known by many people.
souvenirs The souvenir industry is very promising in tourist areas, because everyone who travels generally always buys souvenirs to bring home, these souvenirs are generally in the form of local handicrafts.
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Types of Tourism
As for the types of tourism including:
- Local Tourism
Is tourism whose scope is very limited only to certain places in an area, such as tourism in the city of Malang and other cities.
It is tourism in an area but the scope is wider than local tourism, for example visitors travel to visit places in West Java, East Java and others.
Is a tourism whose scope is very broad to reach a country, usually tourists who come not only from within the country but also from abroad. For example tourists who end up in Indonesia for tours in places in Indonesia.
Tourism Is tourism whose scope is wider than national, but has certain limits, for example traveling in countries located in Western Europe, East Asia, Southeast Asia and others.
It is a wide-ranging tourism of all countries in the world, so tourists visit countries all over the world.
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The Role of Government in Tourism Development
As a service trade industry, tourism activities are inseparable from the participation of the government both the central and regional governments. The government is responsible for four main things viz
- regional planning or tourism area,
- development (development) of the main facilities and supporting tourism,
- tourism policy expenditure,
- making and enforcing regulations. The following is an explanation of the roles of the government in the tourism sector mentioned above
In tourism, planning aims to achieve the goals or objectives of tourism development which includes several important things, namely:
- economic development planning that aims to spur the growth of various types of industries related to tourism,
- land use planning,
- infrastructure planning related to roads, airports and other needs such as; electricity, water, garbage disposal etc.
- social service planning related to the provision of employment, health services, education and social literature, and
- security planning that includes internal security for tourist destinations and tourists.
Tourism development is generally carried out by the private sector, especially the construction of tourism facilities and services. However, the provision of public infrastructure such as roads, electricity and water associated with tourism development, especially for large-scale projects that require very large funds such as airport construction, roads for land transportation, water supply projects, and waste disposal projects are government responsibility. In addition, the government also plays a role as guarantor and supervisor of investors who invest their capital in the field of tourism development.
The policy is a long-term planning that includes the objectives of tourism development and the way or procedure for achieving these objectives made in formal statements such as law and other official documents. Policies made by the government must be fully used as a guide and obeyed by stakeholders. Policies that must be made in tourism are policies related to economic growth, increased employment opportunities, and political relations, especially foreign policy for tourist destinations that rely on foreign tourists.
Government regulations have a very important role especially in protecting tourists and enriching or enhancing their travel experience, which involves:
tourist protection regulations, especially for travel agencies that require tourists to pay a deposit (deposit payment) as a guarantee booking services such as accommodation, tours and others;
fire safety regulations which include arrangements regarding the minimum number of lights in each hotel floor and other safety support devices;
food and health safety regulations governing food health standards served to tourists; (4) competency standard regulations for workers who need special knowledge and expertise such as pilots, drivers, and captain.
In addition, the government is also responsible for managing natural resources such as; rare flora and fauna, water, soil and air to avoid pollution that can disturb and even damage an ecosystem. Therefore, the application of all government regulations and applicable laws is absolutely implemented by the government.